Geospatial and Drone Common Terms
In airborne LiDAR, a laser scanner is mounted on an aircraft or helicopter, which scans the ground surface below it with laser beams. The reflected signals are then collected by the scanner and processed to generate 3D point clouds of the terrain.
Building Information Modeling (BIM): These days, a growing number of architects, engineers, and contractors are using BIM. BIM is an intelligent model-based process that connects these professionals so they can more efficiently design, build, and operate buildings and infrastructure through information modeling.
A contour map, also known as a topographic map or a contour plot, is a graphical representation of the three-dimensional shape of a terrain or surface using contour lines. Contour lines are lines that connect points of equal elevation or altitude above a reference point, such as sea level. These lines are drawn on a two-dimensional map to show the shape and relief of the land.
A DTM is a digital model that represents the bare earth surface by removing all the features above ground, such as buildings, vegetation, and other objects. It represents the actual elevation of the terrain, which is useful in applications such as hydrological modeling, flood risk assessment, and terrain analysis.
Drone LiDAR Mapping
UAV or drone-based LiDAR is gaining popularity due to its ability to collect LiDAR data in hard-to-reach or dangerous areas, such as mountains, cliffs, and building facades. UAV LiDAR involves mounting a LiDAR sensor on a drone, which collects data by flying over the area of interest.
GIS is a computer-based system that allows users to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, and present spatial or geographic data. GIS technology uses specialized software, hardware, data, and people to create, manage, analyze, and visualize various types of spatial data, such as maps, aerial imagery, satellite imagery, and geographic datasets.
A graphic representation or description of a scene, typically produced by an optical or electronic device. Common examples include remotely sensed data (e.g., satellite data), scanned data, and photographs. An image is stored as a raster data set of binary or integer values that represent the intensity of reflected light, heat, or other range of values on the electromagnetic spectrum.
LiDAR ( Light Detection and Ranging) is a method used for determining distances by targeting an object or area with a laser and measuring the time for the reflected light to return to the receiver. The data colllected is called point data and can also be used to make digital 3-D models of areas on the surface or ocean.
An ortho mosaic is a high-resolution map of an area created by stitching together multiple orthorectified aerial or satellite images. Orthorectification involves correcting the distortions caused by terrain and camera angles to create an accurate, two-dimensional representation of the area
Photogrammetry is a technique used to measure and create 3D models of objects or scenes using photographs. It involves analyzing the geometric properties of photographs, such as the position and orientation of the camera, and extracting information from the images to create accurate 3D representations.
Pipeline mapping is the process of creating a detailed map of pipelines and related infrastructure used for the transportation of liquids, gases, or other materials. This technique is commonly used by the oil and gas industry, as well as other industries that rely on pipelines for transportation.
What is 4D GIS Mapping
Time is the fourth dimensions of Geographic Information Systems. The grid or coordinate system is the first two dimensions and is the basis for a 2D paper map. The presentation of height or elevation allows for features on the map to be shown in 3D. Over time the change in mapped features is reported by the fourth dimensions.